The period between 1485 and 1603 in England and Wales. It coincides with the rule of the Tudor dynasty in England whose first monarch was Henry VII (1457-1509).
He wrote the literary work “An Elegy on Henry, fourth Earl of Northumberland”, in 1489
Earl of Surrey, (1516/1517 – 19 January 1547), was an English aristocrat, and one of the founders of English Renaissance poetry.
He and his friend Sir Thomas Wyatt were the first English poets to write in the sonnet form that Shakespeare later used, and Surrey was the first English poet to publish blank verse (unrhymed Iambic pentameter) in his translation of the second and fourth books of Virgil’s Aeneid
Henry Howard, Earl Of Surrey
Fathers of the English Sonnet
Thomas Wyatt and Henry Howard, Earl Of Surrey- Tudor Era
A 16th-century English ambassador and lyrical poet. He is credited with introducing the sonnet into English literature with Henry Howard, Earl Of Surrey
Sir Thomas Wyatt (1503 – 11 October 1542)
Petrarch’s sonnets consist of an “octave”, rhyming abba abba, followed, after a turn (volta) in the sense, by a “sestet” with various rhyme schemes. Wyatt employs the Petrarchan octave, but his most common sestet scheme is cddc ee.
This marks the beginnings of an exclusively “English” contribution to sonnet structure, that is three quatrains and a closing couplet.
An English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman and noted Renaissance humanist. He was also a councillor to Henry VIII and Lord Chancellor from October 1529 to 16 May 1532. He also wrote Utopia, published in 1516
Sir Thomas Moore ( 7 February 1478 – 6 July 1535)
More completed and Erasmus published the book in Leuven in 1516, but it was only translated into English and published in his native land in 1551 (long after More’s execution), and the 1684 translation became the most commonly cited.
Utopia by Thomas Moore in Tudor Period
The Boke named the Governour -It is a treatise on moral philosophy in Tudor Period, intended to direct the education of those destined to fill high positions, and to inculcate those moral principles which alone could fit them for the performance of their duties. The subject was a favourite one in the 16th century
Sir Thomas Elyot – (1531)-Tudor
In 1531 (Tudor Period) he produced “The Boke named the Governour”, dedicated to King Henry VIII which was printed by Thomas Berthelet (1531, 1534, 1536, 1544, etc.).
Sir Thomas Elyot
An English writer in Tudor period known for his plays, poems, and collection of proverbs. Although he is best known as a playwright, he was also active as a musician and composer, though no works survive.
John Heywood (c. 1497 – c. 1580)
An English playwright in Tudor Period, cleric, and schoolmaster, the author of Ralph Roister Doister, generally regarded as the first comedy written in the English language.
Nicholas Udall (1504 – 23 December 1556)
Reference to bodies of work produced during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603), and is considered to be one of the most splendid ages of English literature.
Began writing poetry in 1578, and his writing career only lasted 7— 8 years. His “The Defence of Poesy” was originally published under two different titles, The Defence of Poesie and An Apologie for Poetrie.
Sir Philip Sidney, The Defence of Poesy (1583)
What queen wouldn’t want an epic poem written about her? Especially one that’s filled with nights of yore and some truly crazy antics? Find out in The Faerie Queene.
Edmund Spenser, The Faerie Queene (1590)
One of Shakespeare’s earliest and bloodiest plays. Seriously dark stuff, kiddos.
Titus Andronicus (1590s) William Shakespeare,
To be or not to be?
William Shakespeare, Hamlet (1599/1601)
The Passionate Shepherd to His Love is a pastoral poem written in (1599), meaning it is set in an idealized version of the countryside. Plot-wise, the poem basically comes down one lover saying to another lover: “move to the country with me and once ……..”
The Jew of Malta
An Elizabethan tragedy written Highly popular and influential in its time, it established a new genre in English theatre, the revenge play or revenge tragedy. Its plot contains several violent murders and includes as one of its characters a personification of Revenge.
Thomas Kyd The Spanish Tragedy (1582-1592.)
He has been called the father of empiricism.Religious and literary works – in which he presents his moral philosophy and theological meditations. The Advancement and Proficience of Learning Divine and Human (1605) Novum Organum Scientiarum (‘New Method’, 1620) New Atlantis (1627)-Jacobean Era
His poetry (Elizabethan) is written in the relatively straightforward, unornamented mode known as the plain style. He is considered Raleigh one of the era’s “silver poets”, a group of writers .
Sir Water Raleigh (1554 – 29 October 1618)
Body of works written during the reign of James I of England (1603-25). The successor to Elizabethan literature, Jacobean literature it was often dark in mood, questioning the stability of the social order; some of William Shakespeare’s greatest tragedies may date from the beginning of the period.
Jacobean literature (1603-1625)
A tragedy by William Shakespeare (1604/1606) . The play’s action centers around an aging king who decides to divvy up his kingdom between his three daughters (Goneril, Regan, and Cordelia) in order to avoid any conflict after his death.
William Shakespeare, King Lear (1604/1606)
It was written in 1605 or 1606, right after James I, the first Stuart king, took up the crown of England in 1603. James I was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots (cousin to Elizabeth I)
William Shakespeare, Macbeth (1606)
A tragedy which centers on one of Rome’s three leaders, Mark Antony, and the Queen of Egypt, Cleopatra.
William Shakespeare, The Tragedy of Antony and Cleopatra (1608)
Written toward the end of William Shakespeare’s theatrical career, It is a story of loss and redemption. In a fit of wild and unfounded jealousy, Leontes, the King of Sicily, convinces himself that his pregnant wife is carrying his best friend’s love child.
William Shakespeare, The Winter’s Tale (1609-1611)
His final play. (it’s the last play he wrote entirely by himself.) In it, Shakespeare portrays an aging magician who has been living in exile with his young daughter on a remote island for the past twelve years.
William Shakespeare, The Tempest (1610-1611)
The speaker of “The Flea” tries to talk his crush into bed by using such arousing images as the sucking of blood, the squashing of insects, and suicide.
John Donne, (1610/1633)-Jacobean Era
1616 he published the first collected edition of his works. The collection included a number of plays as well as a short collection of poems called The Forest. Two of the poems called “Song to Celia” is the more famous.
Ben Jonson, (1616)-Jacobean Era
No one’s sure when John Donne’s Holy Sonnets were written.
Death, Be Not Proud – Jacobean Era
He is identified as an anticipator of the Metaphysical Poets of the 17th century. He is best remembered for his translations of Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey, and the Homeric Batrachomyomachia.
George Chapman (c. 1559 – 12 May 1634)-Jacobean Era
She is perhaps best known for having written The Countesse of Mountgomeries Urania, the first extant prose romance by an English woman, and for Pamphilia to Amphilanthus, the second known sonnet sequence by an English woman.
Lady Mary Wroth (1587 – 1651)-Jacobean
An English scholar at Oxford University, best known for the classic The Anatomy of Melancholy in Jacobean Era.
Robert Burton (8 February 1577 – 25 January 1640)
English Jacobean dramatist best known for his tragedies The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi, which are often regarded as masterpieces of the early 17th-century English stage
John Webster (c. 1580 – c. 1634)
A Jacobean playwright. Following William Shakespeare as house playwright for the King’s Men, he was among the most prolific and influential dramatists of his age.
John Fletcher (1579-1625)
English Jacobean playwright and poet. He was one of the few Renaissance dramatists to achieve equal success in comedy and tragedy. Also a prolific writer of masques and pageants, he remains one of the most noteworthy and distinctive of Jacobean dramatists.
Thomas Middleton (1580 – July 1627)
English poet and dramatist in Jacobean Era, whose translation of Homer long remained the standard English version.
George Chapman (c. 1559 – 12 May 1634)-Jacobean Era
Literature in Britain during the reign of Charles I (1625-49)
Non-fiction Prose, Cavalier Poets, who were associated with the court and wrote poems of gallantry and courtship
Literature of Caroline age (1625-1649)
An English poet, polemicist, man of letters. He wrote at a time of religious flux and political upheaval, and is best known for his epic poem Paradise Lost (1667), written in blank verse.
John Milton (9 December 1608 – 8 November 1674)
An epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton (1608-1674)
Welsh-born English poet, orator and Anglican priest in Caroline Age. His poetry is associated with the writings of the metaphysical poets, and he is recognized as “a pivotal figure and important British devotional lyricist
George Herbert (1593 – 1633)-Caroline Age
Richard Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, Thomas Crew, Robert Herrick
Cavalier Poets-Caroline Age
An English scholar at Oxford University, best known for the classic The Anatomy of Melancholy in Caroline Age.
Robert Burton (1577 – 1640)-Caroline Age
In Caroline Era he is an English polymath and author of varied works which reveal his wide learning in diverse fields including science and medicine, religion and the esoteric
Sir Thomas Browne (1605 – 1682) Caroline Age
Religio Medici (1643)
Pseudodoxia Epidemica (1646-72)
Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial (1658)
The Garden of Cyrus (1658)
A Letter to a Friend (1656; pub. 1690)
Christian Morals (1670s; pub. 1716)
Musaeum Clausum Tract 13 from Miscel
Sir Thomas Browne-Caroline Age
An English dramatist (Caroline Age). His finely plotted plays, including A New Way to Pay Old Debts, The City Madam and The Roman Actor, are noted for their satire and realism, and their political and social themes.
Philip Massinger (1583 – 17 March 1640)
A New Way to Pay Old Debts, The City Madam and The Roman Actor
Philip Massinger-Caroline Age
An English playwright and poet of the Jacobean and Caroline eras born in Ilsington in Devon. He is best known for the tragedy ‘Tis Pity She’s a ***** (1633)
John Ford (1586 – 1639)-Jacobean
‘Tis Pity She’s a ***** (1633)- Caroline Age Drama
John Ford-Caroline Age
Theatres were closed on moral and religious grounds. While drama did not flourish, significant examples of non-fiction prose and poetry were written. The era also called Puritan Interregnum era
Commonwealth Era (1649-1658)
An English metaphysical poet and politician who sat in the House of Commons at various times between 1659 and 1678. As a metaphysical poet, he is associated with John Donne and George Herbert.
Andrew Marvell ( 1621 -1678)-Commonwealth
His poems include “To His Coy Mistress”, “The Garden”, “An Horatian Ode upon Cromwell’s Return from Ireland”, “The Mower’s Song” and the country house poem “Upon Appleton House”.
Andrew Marvell-Common Wealth
A Welsh author, physician and metaphysical poet. He took his literary inspiration from his native environment and chose the descriptive name “Silurist,” derived from his homage to the Silures, the Celtic tribe of pre-Roman south Wales which strongly resisted the Romans.
Henry Vaughan (17 April 1621 – 23 April 1695)
An English poet and politician.With his emphasis on definitive phrasing through inversion and balance, he prepared the way for the emergence of the heroic couplet.
Edmund Waller, FRS (3 March 1606 – 21 October 1687)
By the end of the 17th century the heroic couplet was the dominant form of English poetry. His lyrics include the well-known “Go, lovely Rose!”.
An English poet born in the City of London late in 1618.As early as 1628, that is, in his tenth year, he composed his Tragicall History of Piramus and Thisbe, an epic romance written in a six-line stanza, a style of his own invention.
Abraham Cowley ( 1618 – 28 July 1667)
An Anglo-Welsh poet, translator, and woman of letters CommonWealth. She achieved renown as translator of Pierre Corneille’s Pompée and Horace, and for her editions of poetry.
Katherine Philips ( 1632 – 1664)-Commonwealth
She achieved renown as translator of Pierre Corneille’s Pompée and Horace, and for her editions of poetry in Commonwealth Era.
Katherine Philips -Commonwealth
His 1651 book Leviathan established social contract theory, the foundation of most later Western political philosophy.
Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury ( 1588 – 1679) Commonwealth
An English polymath and author of varied works which reveal his wide learning in diverse fields including science and medicine, religion and the esoteric. Browne’s writings display a deep curiosity towards the natural world,
Sir Thomas Browne ( 19 October 1605 – 19 October 1682)
An English writer (1594 -1683). Best known as the author of The Compleat Angler, he also wrote a number of short biographies that have been collected under the title of Walton’s Lives in Commonwealth Era.
Izaak Walton (1594 -1683)-Commonwealth
An English churchman and historian. He is now remembered for his writings, particularly his Worthies of England, published after his death. He was a prolific author, and one of the first English writers able to live by his pen (and his many patrons).
Thomas Fuller (1608 – 16 August 1661)
Worthies of England
He is sometimes known as the “Shakespeare of Divines” for his poetic style of expression, and he is frequently cited as one of the greatest prose writers in the English language. He is remembered in the Church of England’s calendar of saints with a Lesser Festival on 13 August. (Commonwealth)
Jeremy Taylor ( 1613 – 1667)- Commonwealth